One of the most dramatic changes in government in irans history was seen with the 1979 iranian revolution where shah mohammad reza pahlavi was overthrown and replaced by ayatollah ruhollah khomeini. In this book, leading authorities on iran examine the characteristics of the 1979 revolution and the postrevolutionary crisis, to provide a unique analysis and appraisal of a nations experimentation with islam as a political catalyst and as a philosophy for building social order. Modarressi, crisis and consolidation in the formative period of shiite islam. The safavid dynasty ruled iran until 1722, when an afghan army invaded the country and captured isfahan. Coincidentally, khomeini died twentysix years later in 1989, on the eve of 15 khordad. Which type of government did ayatollah khomeini establish as a result of the iranian revolution in 1979. It has been recognized as both a victim and state sponsor of terrorism, but has predominantly been accused of supporting terrorism worldwide.
In some of its basic characteristics, the revolution did not conform to the usual norms of western revolutions, because the state did not represent just an ordinary dictatorship but an absolute and arbitrary system that lacked political legitimacy and a social base virtually across the whole of the society. The iranian revolution past, present and future brought the safavids into direct conflict with the ottoman empire and led to two centuries of intermittent warfare between those two powerful states. If theres been a crisis of state ideology in irans current power structure, has this ideological crisis impacted the process of selecting key presidential contenders. Islamic revolution to other countries in the near east and south. Iran has a longstanding connection with terrorism, in particular after the 1979 islamic revolution.
A repressive theocracy had replaced an authoritarian monarchy. The ideological crisis that is such a source of anxiety for the islamic republic is nothing new. On april 1, he officially declared iran an islamic republic. The shah, irans ruler for nearly four decades, had fled the country. Department of state i am pleased to release the state departments new report detailing the scope of the iranian regimes destructive behavior at home and abroad on the eve of the islamic revolution s 40th anniversary. The iranian revolution, also referred to as the islamic revolution, can be analyzed. Iranian women after the islamic revolution dr ansia khaz ali more than thirty years have passed since the triumph of the islamic revolution in iran, yet there remain a number of questions and ambiguities about the way the islamic republic and its laws deal with.
Supreme leaders legacy debated 30 years after his death. Islamic revolution in iran that would alter this country forever. In the case of iran, the hatred born mohammad reza pahlavi was such a unifying theme milani 4. The revolution of february 1979 was a revolt of the society against the state. The challenges iran faces from the islamic state, other sunni extremist groups, and allied state instability have driven the shift to larger scale mobilization of proxy and partner groups in the past three years, although notably there appears to be little parallel impetus to create cyber proxy groups. The patriotic monarchy was replaced by an islamic republic based on the principle of rule by islamic jurists, or velayate faqih, where clerics serve as head of state and in many powerful. The islamic republic of iran, a resourcerich and laborrich country in the middle east, is a central focus of u. Contending with censorship the underground music scene in urban iran by heather rastovac university of washington, seattle introduction 1 a s modernity and traditionalism collide in contemporary iran, an underground music scene musiqii ziri zamin is emerging in iran. Iranian revolution and the islamic republic, its impact on the relationship between the state. The brief concludes by addressing what this change in civic patriotism says about the willingness of the current generation of jordanian activists to call for revolution.
Political succession in the islamic republic of iran. Less noticed, but equally significant, the revolution provoked a response by saudi arabia and various sunni militant groups that set the stage for the rise. Policy and options congressional research service 2 the socalled hostage crisis that ended in january 1981 with the release of the hostages. Iran islamic republic ofs constitution of 1979 with. Powerful among iranian exiles, but with very limited influence inside iran, the pmoi was founded in 1965 by leftist muslim college students and sidelined by khomeinis faction during the 1979 islamic revolution. The date of 15 khordad is widely noted throughout the islamic republic of iran. The newsmagazine for teens tehran, irans capital, was in a state of revolt on jan. Denounced in iran as a terrorist group, the pmoi renounced violence in 2001. Middle east briefs crown center for middle east studies.
During this era, iran experienced a harsh economic downturn, urban. What are the main points of the islamic revolution in 1979. But where the islamic republics enemies see a grasping wouldbe empire, its own strategists see an embattled state redressing historical wrongs. A group of iranian scholars living in the west have undertaken a critical assessment of the ideological, economic, and social developments in the islamic republicand finds little to praise. Read middle east brief 4 pdf yazan doughan, neubauer junior research fellow at the crown center. The period 196063 marked a turning point in the development of the iranian state. Sanctions placed on iran by the us increasingly isolated iran, a situation which can still be seen today. Large numbers of christians, bahais, and jews left iran after the islamic revolution in 1979. On november 4th, 1979, islamic students stormed the u.
Crisis of an islamic state by saeed rahnema, sohrab behdad 1996 the priest and the king. Shah flees iran faced with an army mutiny and violent demonstrations against his rule, mohammad reza shah pahlavi, the leader of iran since 1941, is forced to flee the country. Industrial expansion was promoted by the pahlavi regime, while political parties that resisted the shahs absolute consolidation of power were silenced and pushed to the margins. The united states asserts that iran is a state sponsor of terrorism and that irans uranium enrichment activities are for the development of nuclear weapons. Iranian foreign policy since the 1979 islamic revolution. The ideology of irans 1979 islamic revolutionwhich ousted a secular, authoritarian leader and established a shia clericdominated regimestill infuses irans foreign policy. If iran were to hold a referendum on the islamic republic today, over 70 percent would clearly oppose itamong them the wealthy. Saddam hussein through the iranian revolution, the american hostage crisis, and the iraniraq war was viewed by his followers as miraculous and a reward for his piety society, 2011. The iranian revolution and its legacy of terrorism lawfare. Irans political economy since the revolution by suzanne.
Today the emphasis is on the integration of islamic teachings and values into part of the course of study. Iran is a rising power in the middle east, having exploited opportunities arising from the u. The road to isolation triumphs and tragedies of the. The iranian political elite, state and society relations, and foreign. The 1979 islamic revolution in iran has proved one of the most consequential events in the history of modern terrorism. The iranian revolution of february 1979 middle east. In january of 1979, the shah and his family fled iran on what was officially described as a vacation. After the iranian revolution in 1979, religion would be at the forefront of irans state identity. For several years after the revolution, iran attempted to export its revolution to. Get an answer for what are the main points of the islamic revolution in 1979. The iran hostage crisis leads carter to mount the first u. Irans crisis of state ideology the washington institute. A triple crisis is plaguing the islamic republic, covering socioeconomic, political, and environmental dimensions all of which have acted as interrelated.
Forty years ago, ayatollah ruhollah khomeini spearheaded a revolution that deposed a monarchy in iran. Iran is the major shiite country in the muslim world. Iranian revolution, also called islamic revolution, persian enqelabe eslami, popular uprising in iran in 197879 that resulted in the toppling of the monarchy on february 11, 1979, and led to the establishment of an islamic republic. State, political stability and property rights fatemeh e. The 1979 islamic revolution in iran was a reaction to the failure of shah reza pahlavi to. One year after the fall of the shah, irans leaders appear more. Suzanne maloneys sobering and authoritative interrogation of irans political economy makes it clear that the countrys history of distrust of the external world, resistance to pressure, internal divisions, and national pride, all of which antedate the islamic regime, make it unlikely that iran will become a normal country any time soon. From the white revolution to the islamic revolution ahmad ashraf. United states reacted the hostage crisis by enforcing sanctions against iran. The islamic revolution in iran by said amir arjomand 1988 foucault and the iranian revolution. The article describes recent protests in iran against obligatory head cover and adds that the law regarding the scarf has been enforced since the 1979 islamic revolution.
Although many sunni militants saw iran s shiite theology as anathema, the idea of a religious revolution was compelling and gave new energy and hope to existing organizations. Shortly after this khomeini returned and took control of the country as the religious leader of the revolution. Economic decline and revolutionary turmoil in the 1970s even though the peak of the revolution was in 1979, key preliminary events occurred throughout the mid 1970s. For young iranians, economic strife and conservatism taint the legacy of ayatollah ruhollah khomeini and his revolution. But the compulsory hijab a headscarf covering the hair and neck is not a symbol of irans revolution. Iran after the revolutioncrisis of an islamic state, london. Revolution and after holds relevant lessons for current developments in the. While iran s economy remains largely reliant on oil, many iranians are dissatisfied with the perceived inflation and corruption in the government. The rise of the revolutionary guards 2 introduction in political systems without strong and legitimate democratic institutions, succession 1 is often mired in some level of crisis and uncertainty.
Department of state i am pleased to release the state departments new report detailing the scope of the iranian regimes destructive behavior at home and abroad on the eve of the islamic revolutions 40th anniversary. Instead, they argue, in the struggle within the opposition to the shah between populism and islamic conservatism. The revolution led to a surge in iranianbacked terrorism that continues, albeit in quite different forms, to this day. Irans islamic revolution after the overthrow of the shah, an american ally became one of its biggest adversaries. After introducing the land andits people, it will provide a background to the constitutional revolution of 1906, examine the reigns of the two pahlavi shahs, and analyze the causes and consequences of the islamic revolution of 1978. In addition, iran declared its revolution an islamic revolution, not just a shiite one. Guardians of the islamic revolution deep blue university of. Pdf foreign policy of iran after islamic revolution researchgate.
Ayatollah khomeini claimed broad islamic support for the revolution and was quick to criticize the decadence of the wahhabi saudi monarchy. This paper offers a reassessment of the continuity and change in iranus relationsboth before and after the revolutionin order to demonstrate a paradigm shift encompassing new approaches to. Among other places, the intersection known as 15 khordad crossroads, a 15th of khordad metro station are named after it. The iranian revolution at 30 middle east institute. This course covers the history of iran in the twentieth century.81 668 655 1217 169 905 85 747 1208 1155 1572 791 1366 296 1298 565 193 580 290 535 261 31 800 176 937 496 183 1238 372 55 1031 791 392 246 1355 673 273 1490 1089 1487 148